Important General Science Topic For Railway Examination 2019


Disease is abnormal mental and physical state of a person. It can be defined as a “condition or state which interferes with the normal functioning of the body and impairs the health.”

Disease can be caused due to various reasons. Every disease has characteristic symptoms through which we can identify the types of disease.

Types of diseases:

  • Deficiency disease: This type of diseases is caused by lack of essential dietary elements like minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins. Name of various deficiency diseases with the symptoms are given below-
    Name of disease Defficiency Symptom
    Night blindness Vitamin A Blurry or cloudy vision at night or in poor light
    Dermatosis Vitamin A Skin disease
    Beriberi Vitamin B (thiamin) Muscle weakness, swelling and pain in legs, enlarged legs
    Scurvy Vitamin C(ascorbic acid) Bleeding gums, loose teeth, dry and damaged skin
    Rickets Vitamin D Pain in arm bone,legs, pelvis, deformed skull, pelvis and limbs in children
    Goiter Iodine Swelling of neck, coughing
    Anemia Hemoglobin(Iron) Weakness and pale skin
    Hypokalemia Potassium Weakness, kidney damage
  • Hereditary disease : These are inborn disease present in an individual from birth. These are mainly caused by the genetic disorders or defects. For example: AIDS, Diabetes etc.
  • Infectious disease: This type of disease is caused by specific pathogenic organisms and capable of being transmitted to another person by direct or indirect contact i.e. through air, food, water, etc.These are further classified into several types on the basis of the causative organisms
    Viral diseases Caused by virus
    Bacterial diseases Caused by bacteria
    Fungal diseases Caused by fungus
    Protozoal diseases Caused by protozoa
    Helminthic diseases Caused by worms

Disease & causative agents

Causative agents Diseases
Virus AIDS, Influnenza, Rabies,Chicken pox,Measles, yellow fever,mumps, Poliomyelitis, Dengue fever etc.
Bacteria Typhoid, Diphtheria,Cholera,Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Plague, Whooping cough etc.
Fungus Ringworms, Madura foot, Dhobi’s itch etc.
Protozoa Malaria, Kalazar,Sickness,Leishmaniasis, Amoebic dysentery etc.
Worms(tape worm, roundworm, filaria worm) Taeniasis,Ascariasis,Filariasis
  • Communicable disease.

Communicable diseases are spread through contact with blood and bodily fluids, being bitten by an insect etc.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Sexual relation, blood transfusion, sharing of syringes
Chicken pox varicella-zoster virus Infected person
Cholera Vibrio cholerae Contaminated water and seafood
Malaria Plasmodium protozoa Bite from an infected mosquito
Measles Rubella virus Droplet infection
Typhoid Salmonella typhi Droplet spread
Common cold Numerous viruses Respiratory droplets of infected person
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Respiratory secretion and saliva of infected person
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus Vaginal secretion of infected person
Influenza Numerous viruses Direct contact, respiratory droplets
Poliomyelitis Polio virus Direct contact with nasopharyngeal secretions of infected person, vomit
Rabies Virus Bite from rabid animal

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